Summerville (UK) Somerville, [ s m r v l ]) is a city located in Middle Sex County, Massachusetts, the United States. It is two miles (3 km) northwest of Boston City. In the 2010 census, the population was 75,754, and in New England, it is the most densely populated city. As of 2000, it was the 15th highest population density in Japan. As a town, it was separated from Charlestown and incorporated as a corporation in 1842. In 2006, it was listed in the best-run city in Massachusetts from the Boston Globe. In 1972 and 2009, he received the National City Prize.
Somerville location (red) in Massachusetts and Middle Sex County (pink)
|county||Middle Sex County|
|- Type||Mayor and City Council|
|- Mayor||Joseph Carthon|
|· Total||4.2mi2 (10.9 km2)|
|· Land||4.1mi2 (10.6 km2)|
|- Water surface||0.1mi2 (0.3 km2)|
|· Density||18,147.6/mi2 (7,006.8/km2)|
|equal time||UTC-5 (Eastern Standard Time)|
|· Daylight saving time||UTC-4 (Eastern Daylight Time)|
|Postal code|| |
02143, 02144, 02145
|area code||617 / 857|
The area which constitutes the present Somerville City was developed as a part of Charlestown in 1629. In the same year, English surveyor Thomas Greaves led a 100-Puritan scouts from the Seelam frontier and prepared a site for English immigrants to Puritan. Greaves attracted the long, narrow Mishawam Peninsula between the Charles and Mystic rivers. The peninsula was connected to the mainland at present-day Sullivan Square. The first frontier area was based on the City Square of the Peninsula, and the official Charlestown area included Merrose City, Morden City, Stonam City, Medford City, Everett City, Uban City, and Burlington City as well as parts of Arlington and Cambridge City in addition to the current Summer Building. From that time until 1842, the area of the present Summerville was called the "beyond the neck", and it was the term for the narrow land of Charlestown Neck, which connects to the Charlestown Peninsula.
The first European pioneer on record Summerville was John Woolrich, a trader with the Indians who moved from the Charlestown Peninsula in 1630, and settled near Den Street. Those who followed entered the neighborhood of the present Union Square, The population continued to increase gradually, and in 1775, about 500 residents were scattered in the area. Most of the land was used for grazing and farmland. Partly because it was called 'Stoned Pascher' or 'Cow Commons,' the early pioneers of Charlestown had the right to pasture a large number of cattle in the area.
John Winthrop, the first governor-general of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was sold in 1631 at 600 acres (2.4 km2) of land. Named Ten Hills Farm by the ten small cobs in the area, the land stretched from the Craddock Bridge at the current Medford Center to Covent Hill at East Somerville. Winthrop lived on this farm, cultivated it and raised cows. It was also the place where the first ship in Massachusetts, the Breathing of the Bay, was launched. The ship was built for trade in the early 1630s and was soon armed to spy on the New England Coast. This is considered to be the beginning of the American Navy. The Ten Hills area is located in the northeastern part of the city, and has a name for more than 300 years. A recent study found that within 10 years of John Winthrop's relocation to the farm in 1631, there were people who enslaved Indian prisoners. The subsequent owners of Tenhills depended on the benefits of slavery until the 1780s when Massachusetts abolished slavery.
In a short time the pioneers began to stretch their roads in all directions, calling for trade between the land they had to build and the various Indians in the region. By the 1630s, the first road that had already been built was probably Washington Street, and was heading from the current Sullivan Square to Harvard Square. It was called 'the road to New Town' in its early days and was renamed Cambridge in 1638. In the 1700s and early 1800s, Washington Street and Summerville Avenue formed "Milk Row" as the path that dairy farmers in Middlesex County preferred to bring products to the markets in Charlestown and Boston.
The Broadway, built in 1636, may be the second road in the area. At first, it was called 'the road of Menatomy,' and it was located from Charlestown Neck to the reclaimed land of Menatomy (present Arlington). The Broadway was initially separated by a farm and became a commercial district main street after a trolley was introduced in 1858.
role in the American Revolution
Somerville was a place where hostile actions took place at the beginning of the American Revolution. It is thought that the British soldiers stole the powder from the colony, which led to a huge revolt of the public called the alarm bell, and that this incident was a turning point that led to the war.
The Old Powder House, built by the pioneers for the first time as a windmill in the early 1700s, was sold to the Massachusetts Bay Colonial Government in 1747 for use as a magazine. It was located at College Avenue Intersection in Broadway and the present Powder House Square, and it stored the largest amount of gunpowder in the whole of Massachusetts. Thomas GAGE, who became the Military Commissioner for the Massachusetts Government in May 1774, established the British Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party Incident and carried out the execution of the intolerable laws that were extremely unpopular among the colonies. In order to avoid the outbreak of the war, Gage considered it the best way to secretly remove munitions from New England's warehouses and arsenals.
Just after dawn on September 1, 1774, about 260 British regular soldiers from the fourth regiment secretly rowed up the Mystic River from Boston under the command of Lieutenant George Madison and headed for a landing spot near Winter Hill. From there, they marched about a mile (1.6 km) to the powder house, removing all gunpowder. Most of the troops returned to Boston on their way, but a small group marched to Cambridge and secured two field guns from Cambridge Common. This cannon and gunpowder were moved from Boston to the British military base called Fort William and Mary (renamed Fort Independence in 1779) in Castle Island at that time.
There was a rumor that blood was shed in response to the attack, and the alarm spread far beyond the country side to the point of connecticut. The patriots, fearing the impending war, took action immediately. Thousands of militia began to head for Boston and Cambridge, and through the acts of mobs the royalists and government officials fled in search of the protection of the British army. This incident played a role of 'stage training' for the battle of Lexington Concord seven months after the event became famous for the phrase 'a shot has changed the world.' However, the passion that had already heated up between the two sides was exactly lit, and both the British and American colonists began to secure gunpowder and artillery in their proper places.
After the attack on the Powder House, the colonists took action to hide ammunition in the Concord. When General Gage found out about it, he decided to take up gunpowder by force if necessary. On April 18, 1775, when he learned that the British army had aimed at concord, veteran deliverer Paul Libyan rode her horse to inform farmers and militias between Boston and Concord, and he also reported to its leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. That night, Libya left North End and left Charlestown for East Summerville, where he met two English officers who were stationed on Washington Street. They immediately began to track Libya, and Libya hastily rode through Broadway to Winterhill, leaving the British at last. The Libyan warning gave Militias enough time to prepare for the battle and the war of independence started.
Just after Paul Libyan began to ride, Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith and 700 British regular soldiers landed near Lemmia Square. Near the high tide, East Cambridge was an island, and the troops went through the marsh and reached Somerville on foot through the "thigh-deep" water. They had probably entered Washington Street from Prospect Street and passed through Union Square.
The British army was defeated at the Concord and retreated, and on their way back to Boston they passed Summer Building again. When we reached Union Square we had a skirmish at the foot of Prospect Hill, through Washington Avenue. A handful of local people heard rumors of a battle at Lexington and Concord that broke out early that day, and then suddenly attacked the British troops, who were exhausted and retreated. The skirmish killed James Miller, a 65-year-old militia, who was blocked up against the British army. Miller was shot 13 after telling his fellow retreat, "I'm too old to run."
Over the course of the nine-month siege of Boston, Somerville was a prominent place. The Prospect Hill was located in the center of a series of camps to the north of Boston where the Great Army had spread. Its height and its visibility into Boston City and ports were of great strategic value, and the fort came to be called the "Citadel." The Prospect Hill, which was initially occupied by just 400 people, became the main U.S. camp after General Israel Patnam withdrew from the Battle of Bunker Hill. On January 1, 1776, the first star flag was raised on the Citadel, and the American flag was officially raised for the first time.
independence, urbanization, and rapid growth
After the War of Independence, the residents of Summerville could again put their energy into the work of life. From the 1780s to the 1842 when the area was separated from Charlestown, the situation continued to progress, although slightly loose. The transportation infrastructure gradually transformed the region, and new industries such as brick-making, stone-processing and dairy industries emerged.
With the improvement of traffic conditions from the early 1800s to the mid-1800s, it changed to a more urban style of living, and in 1872, it was incorporated as a city. These improvements include the opening of the Middle Sex Canal, which runs through Summer Building in 1803, and the opening of toll roads, such as Medford Street and Beacon Street, which were built between the 1810s and 1820s, with the opening of railways in particular. In 1841, the Fitzburg Railway was built in parallel with Somerville Avenue between Boston and Fresh Pounds in Cambridge. As a result, a company was established along the line. Shortly after that, in 1843, the Fitzburg Railway started passenger transportation and enabled the development of housing on the south slope of Prospect Hill and Spring Hill. By the early 1840s, the population exceeded 1,000 for the first time.
However, despite this growth, dissatisfaction spread outside the 'neck'. The rural farmer paid taxes to the government in Charlestown, but his return was small. Even in 1842, there were no churches, few schools, no lodging houses, and poor roads which could not be passed. For a long time after the War of Independence, the two parts of Charlestown, the "inside" and the "outside of the neck", had the same population. That was how the inner side of the house gradually surpassed the outer side. This population and the growth of trade required the structure of the city, and as a result, it required a large amount of money. Therefore, the rural department in Charlestown was paying taxes to improve the town's poor benefits, such as paving the streets, keeping night guards and building fire stations.
In 1828, a petition to separate a part of Charlestown under the name of Warren was submitted to the Massachusetts State Council. The desire for another town continued to spread, and by 1841, the government's attitude of ignoring the appropriate measures became intolerable, and the residents again incited the separation of the town, and on November 22, a meeting was held in the school building of Prospect Hill about the issue.
A petition was drawn up, and Guy C. Hawkins and 151 others signed it, a committee was held to pass the Diet, and then it was moved to the Diet. A bill to incorporate the new town was passed on March 3, 1842 by the governor of the state. When the town was separated from Charlestown, it was named Walford after Thomas Walford, the first pioneer of Charlestown. However, the name was not adopted by the Committee of Separate Committee. One of the members, Charles Miller, proposed Summerville, which was finally adopted. This was not a specific individual's name, but in the report of the Summer Building History Association, it was described as a "purely creative name."
Before the town was turned in 1842, the inhabitants were English farmers and brick workers who sold products on the markets in Boston, Cambridge, and Charlestown. When the market grew, the population grew to 14,685, six-fold between 1842 and 1870. The number of immigrants rapidly increased in the region, the industry started, and the brick building became the biggest business. Before the machine press was invented, it had made 1.3 million bricks a year. After that, production increased to 5.5 million a year, and this success led to many other industries. In 1851, the American Tubes Works opened, followed by a meat processing and packaging factory. In addition, they began to make steam engines, boilers, glass, and iron.
Soon after that, in 1872, it was incorporated as a city. The growth of the population has been contributed to the improvement of existing transportation systems, as well as the opening of the Lexington and Arlington Railway through Davis Square in 1870. At its peak, there were eight passenger stations in the city. The economy that emerged during this period was linked to the industry in the core of the residential area and near the freight railway. By the middle of the 1870s, meat processing factories became main employers and they produced local profits.
The era of the Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1915) was an era of tremendous growth in both public and commercial aspects. Infrastructure such as railroads, water supplies, telegrams and electric power was developed and connected to surrounding towns. The population has exploded from 15,000 to 90,000. Since the railway was first opened in the 1830s, the brick-making structure ruled the area, and the brick factory flourished throughout the 1870s. Meat processing replaced brick-making and was also called 'Chicago of New England.' In addition, it was located next to Boston and was ideally located at industrial facilities because of the ease of use of railways and roads.
From 1915 to 1930, Somerville's industry was integrated more than expanded, and the population growth slowed somewhat. The most important industries in this period were meat processing, dairy products, ice and food distribution. The construction of McGrace Highway in 1925 was a turning point for the industrial city of Somerville. In 1926, Ford Motor built an assembly plant in Assembly Square and accelerated. In the following period, automobile assembly became the most important industry in place of meat processing, and a change was made as a major industrial zone.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Union Square and Davis Square were the largest commercial areas, but smaller and less developed, were also growing. One or two-story commercial buildings were built and developed on Ball Square, Magone Square and Tail Square. Retail and financial businesses also expanded. The industrial era continued throughout World War II and reached the population of 105,883 in 1940. The construction boom continued into the 1940s, and a dense residential area called 'a residential city' was built.
deindustrialization and decline
By the middle of the 20th century, strong society and economy began to decline, and industrial and population declined until the 1980s. After the war, it was characterized by an increase in private cars and had a great influence on Summer Buildings. After 1890, each tram line that ran around the city was discontinued. Commuter trains were discontinued at eight stations in the city. The number of passenger trains on Fitzburg and Lowell was reduced, and stations in Gilman Square were removed in the late 1940s. The Passenger Railway stopped all operations in 1958.
The number of cars running along the streets in the city has been increasing, and plans to build roads have surged. The Ayleif Brook Parkway, the Mystic Valley Parkway and the Fels Connector Parkways were initially considered as means for citizens to go to urban parks in the 1890s, but were transformed into crowded commuter routes for drivers in the suburbs. The highway plan developed after the Federal Highway Aid Act (1956) and, in some cases, the whole area was replaced. The Brick Bottom area was reclaimed in 1950 for the Inner Belt Express Way project, and the Steutz area's houses were dismantled in the late 1960s by the construction of Inter-State Expressway Route 93.
The factory was able to use highways and slowly moved out to the periphery of the urban area where cheap undeveloped land was located. The Ford Motor plant at Assembly Square, the region's largest employer, was closed in 1958 and hit the local economy. From the late 1950s to the early 1970s, the Finance Supermarket used a building that housed a Ford factory in Middlesex Avenue, but it was also closed in 1976. By this year, Assembly Square had been a ghost town. Finest Stores, Boston and Main Railroad, and Ford Motor paid the city a million dollars a year in tax, but that was lost. By the late 1970s, the population, revenue and employment opportunities of Somerville decreased.
At the end of the 20th century, the situation in Somerville was stable and growth returned. It began with Westsomerville, and then the whole city.
In 1984, nearly 30 years after the abolishment of passenger trains in the city, the Northwest Extension Line of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Bureau Red Line opened up to Davis Square. The city and local community used the creation of new stations as a catalyst to redevelop the declined square, promoted new commercial development and supported the improvement of physical and infrastructure. However, in 1984, when a new station was built, the companies around Davis Square did not immediately prosper. The number of regional retail stores decreased from 68 stores in 1977 to 56 stores in 1987. However, the space for the retail stores, which had been vacant, was filled with beauty salons and real estate businesses. As the Boston metropolitan area recovers from the long recession, the area began to be a real one. The vision of the community to revitalize commerce and retailing has been fully realized in the past few years. The advantage of being close to the red line was that the space rate of the store around the square was near zero.
The boom in communications and biotechnology from the mid-to-late 1990s contributed greatly to the revitalization of Summer Buildings. As with the housing boom of 100 years ago, the number of jobs required in Summerville, Boston, particularly Cambridge, and towns directly connected to Somerville increased rapidly and created new housing demand. In synchronization with the economic recovery in 1995, the end of rent control in Cambridge also increased the demand for available housing options in Summerville.
Until the 1990s, the Summer Building was called the 'Slamer Building' (slum town) among the private sector. This was because there were many blue-collar workers, and especially in the eastern part of the city where Winterhill Gang was based, there were many crimes. In addition, the number of thieves among automobile thieves was high, and it was also said that the city was the capital of a thief of automobile, and Assembly Square was especially notorious. However, as the higher and more middle class advanced throughout the 1990s and artists entered the area, this name was no longer used, and the town gained a reputation as an active art town, and was listed in the most well-managed city of Massachusetts in 2006, coupled with the efficient government. In addition, an attempt has been underway recently to support local companies, public transportation, and gardens by using grassroots organizations to revive and preserve the environment of "small towns."
According to the National Census Bureau, the entire area of the city is 4.2 square miles (11 km2), of which land area is 4.1 square miles (11 km2), water area is 0.1 square miles (0.26 km 2), and water area is 2.61%. Somerville borders on Cambridge, Arlington, Medford and Everett, and the Charlestown area in Boston. It is located on the west bank of the Mystic River. ... A 1,000-year-old glaciers left a series of drums from west to east in the area where they became summer buildings. These ridges later came to be called "Seven Hills" of a summer building as follows:
- Central Hill
- Clarendon Hill
- Cobble Hill
- Proud Hill (or Mount Benedict)
- Union Hill (or Mount Pisger)
- Spring Hill
- Winter Hill
These hills rise from the floodplain of the Mystic River, lining from west to east, providing beautiful scenery for Boston and Medford and Everett of the North in the south. The physical boundary is determined by a well known waterway. the Mystic River in the north, the Ayrwyff Brook, a tributary of the west, and the Miller's River in the southeast.
The early days of the Summer Building were mainly used as pastoral and small farms. In the mid-1800s, after railroads were introduced to the area, the landscape changed with industrialization. In the 1800s, the Miller's River was used for sewage and a garbage dump in a local factory, and before the end of the century, the river was ordered to be reclaimed from the state for health reasons. There was a considerable movement of land, and as a result of the removal of the former Cobble Hill, the floodplain of the Miller's Wetland was converted into a large-scale land use, such as a railway yard and a slaughterhouse for food animals.
Summerville is a humid continental climate characterized by warm summer and cold winter. The humidity is high throughout the year. The hottest month is July and the average temperature is 74.0 degrees F (23.3 degrees C). The coldest month is January and the average temperature is 29.0 degrees F (-1.7 degrees C). As it is located inland from Boston, the Atlantic Ocean has a less relaxing effect, and the temperature is higher in summer than in Boston and lower in winter.
|Climate of Summerville|
|Maximum Temperature Record °F (°C)||72 |
|Mean maximum temperature°F (°C)||36 |
|Mean Minimum Temperature°F (°C)||20 |
|Minimum Temperature Recording °F (°C)||-30 |
|Precipitation inch (mm)||3.36 |
|Source: Weather Channel|
Square and District
The commercial assets of the Summerville are not concentrated on what is considered the central city, but are dispersed into different nodes and corridors of their business activities. The difference in character varies from the live performances of the active night life, music and drama in Davis Square to the convenience of large-scale retail stores and highways in Assembly Square. The distribution of this space was caused by economic activities around the stations where the trains and streetcars stopped in the early period. Other factors include the geographical features of the region. Many hills have created the scenery of summer buildings, and the network of roads has been used to control the commercial development of the area.
There are many squares in the city which serve as the center of business and entertainment, and there are many other districts.
- Assembly Square
- ball square
- Brick bottom (north of the state road, south of the Inner Belt area)
- Davis Square (regarded as Westsomerville)
- East Somerville (east of McGrace Highway, between Washington Street and Broadway Street)
- Gilman Square (composed of Medford Street and Pearl Street)
- Inner Belt District
- Magone Square
- Nanari Grounds (Mount Benedict)
- Powder House Square
- Prospect Square (part of Union Square)
- Spring Hill
- Tire Square
- Ten Hills
- Union Square
- Wilson Square (Elm Street and Summerville Avenue)
- Winter Hill
Sullivan Square is beyond the Charlestown boundary. Porter Square, Inman Square, and Lekmia Square lie beyond the Cambridge border.
Summerville takes the form of a government of the Mayor's and City Council. The members of the Municipal Government Commission consist of four members, whose constituency the entire city is located in, and seven members, who represent the small constituency.
John J. Murphy of 1929 was the first Democrat to be the first Mayor of Summerville. Since 1872, when the city was established, all the mayors have been Republicans. Murphy rallied citizens of Irish, Italian, Greek and Portuguese and won the seventh attempt. A procession of thousands of candles assembled in the middle of each square, such as Union Square in the city, took place.
The House of Representatives is part of the seventh constituency in Massachusetts. As of January 2014, Mike Capuano, a Republican, was the mayor of Samaville from 1990 to 1999.
It belongs to the second Middle Sex constituency in the state upper house. The House also belongs to Middle Sex 26th, 27th and 34th constituencies.
|Number of registered voters by party, as of October 17, 2012|
|political party||number of voters||ratio|
|Democratic Party of Japan||26,167||53.35%|
|Green Rainbow Party||196||0.40%|
The Summerville Police Station is on 220 Washington Street, Union Square. They work to respond to the move, conduct investigations, prevent waste materials and control traffic in the city. The department includes patrol, area, special duties, assistance, K-9, detective, and transportation. It has a patrol car and a covered patrol car, and it also has motorbikes, escorts, multipurpose vehicles for traffic regulation, speed measuring tractors, and emergency control trucks.
The Summerville Fire Station is responsible for fire fighting, fire education, fire prevention, emergency medical care, hazardous materials response, mitigation measures and water supply, transportation, and rescue in limited spaces and ditches. Emergency medical care is provided at the primary emergency care level. Approximately 9,000 emergency calls are available each year.
The Board of Education is composed of seven members, a mayor and a chairperson of the City Council of State. The budget is approved by both the Board of Education and the City Council.
emergency medical care
Cathartic emergency service takes charge of primary life care and secondary life care and emergency life care.
The Summerville Public School District has jurisdiction over 11 schools, from pre-kindergarten through to secondary schools.
The East Somerville Community School was temporarily closed in a fire in 2007 and is now being dismantled and rebuilt. The students go to the nearby Edgarry and Capano schools.
The school district also houses the Summer Building Center for Adult Experience. The redevelopment of the former Powder House Community School, which was closed in 2004, is under consideration, and if the Recovery and Investment Act of the United States of America was funded in 2009, it will be integrated with the city's offices or planned to be developed in other ways.
The Tufts University is officially located in Medford, but there are also some in Summerville City. The city border divides the university's Kleenex library. The university employs many local residents and runs many community services to help the city. In particular, it is operated through the Leonard Carmichael Association and Jonathan M. Tissue College citizens and public services.
The Summerville Public Library has three branch offices and offers a wide range of services, including books, movies, music, computer use, and English conversation classes.
Since the northwest extension line of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Bureau Red Line opened up to Davis Square in Summer Building in 1985, the city's dramatic middle-class has been promoted. In particular, the area between Harvard and Tufts is prominent. In the mid-1990s, the rent regulation was abolished, and in the latter half of that time, the Internet bubble followed and this phenomenon accelerated. The value of housing was four-fold between 1991 and 2003, and the number of houses to rent was reduced because the house was transformed into an attractive apartment house. This has created tensions between the people living in the area and the newcomers, and many accusations are that they ignore the problems of the working class family, such as drug and gang violence.
The anti-Happy graffiti broke out around the town and revealed the fault. There is an economic conflict between several areas of the city and Boston City, especially Cambridge City, which has created anti-intellectualism and anti-gentleman culture and has spread to many generations. These symptoms include minor crimes and violence against strangers.
In recent years, there has been a movement to improve the relationship between the old and the new inhabitants, and to ensure that the interests of the Samaville working class remain at the front lines of the city government's interest. The group, led by young people in the city, not only advocates the desire to integrate all residents, but also highlights the difficulties faced by young adults. This was supported by many prominent local adults, such as officers selected in the election. Many of these community-led groups are difficult to obtain support from those who choose to move to other towns because of their strong economic power, which is densely populated and is expensive to live in.
Since Somerville is close to various higher education institutions, students and young experts living near Tufts University on the border between Harvard University and Leslie University of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge City, and Somerville and Medford are constantly there. In the city, Irish and Italian blue-collar residents live, and the number of Portuguese Americans live in the whole city, although the number is slightly lower. Migrants from Brazil, Haiti, and El Salvador tend to live mainly in East Somerville, while immigrants from South Korea, Nepal, and India tend to live in Union Square.
In November 1997, the magazine "Euthne Leader" selected Davis Square from Summerville as one of the 15 popular places in the United States. This article explains how, in the age of social and economic change, the working class and the industrial zone in the country, and the summer building share them:
The city has a prosperous artist community, with the number of artists per capita ranked second in the country.
The following is demographic data from the 2010 census.
Households and family (number of households)
income and family
business and entertainment
In the history of Summerville's industry, he left many legacy, including the invention of marshmallow cream by Archibald Query. In 1914, the first economy, general store was established, which later developed into a chain store of stops and shops. In food-related areas, Steve's ice cream and Beldrich's Italian restaurant have started from the adjacent section of Davis Square. The Assembly Square Marketplace is a popular center for businesses in the city.
At Davis Square is the Summer Building Theater, the Summer Building Branch of the Art Museum of Art, and every spring the Boston Independent Film Festival is held. P.A.'s lounge is a live music venue.
The major art studios, Brick Bottom Artist Building and Joy Street Studio, are in the old factory buildings in the Brick Bottom area. The Brickbottom Artists Association has held a studio event every autumn since 1987. Further, Artisan's Asiram, located between Union Square and Porter Square on Tyler Street, is a hacker space, with 150 members and 200 students from 2011 participating in the famous car culture.
The Summerville Art Committee and the Summerville Open Studio both hold events related to the art that grew up in the region every year. The Boston branch of Dokbot is holding a rally at the Willoughby and Baltic Studios in Brickbottom.
Since 2006, the Furaf Festival has been held annually to celebrate the invention of Furaf in Summer Building. The Union Square Main Street has created "What is a Furaf?" There are street stalls and entertainment, and the Parao Coronation of Furahu.
George Dilboi Memorial Stadium is a multipurpose public stadium in the city. The Boston Brakers women's soccer club is the home ground, and Boston Milisha, the Women's Football League, is also the home ground. The stadium is named to commemorate George Dilboye, who won the Medal of Honor in World War I.
There are 83 places in the city designated as National Register of Historic Places. These include a variety of houses, libraries, roads, churches, etc., and are landmarks in the city.
Streets and parks
The Somerville Community Pass, a railroad trail lined with trees, runs from Cedar Street to the city of Cambridge, Davis Square. It connects to Ayle Wiff Linear Park, and also connects to the Minutmann cycle road and the Fitzburg cut-off path. Local activists are hoping to extend the road to Lekmia Square in the east, which will also lead to the Charles River Cycle Road and the planned East Coast Greenway. In May 2013, construction work for the extension section started between Cedar Street and Lowell Street. As of 2010, there are 63 parks, playgrounds, sports grounds and regional gardens in the city.
Summer Building Museum
The Summerville Museum stores commemorative articles of the city's history and has historical and artistic exhibits. Westwood Road 1, on the corner of Central Street.
The Summer Building was originally built as a suburban area of Boston with an ideal framework and layout for public transportation. It was traditionally designed as an adjacent area, with a grid-shaped road network, and was connected with a transportation-friendly system that also allowed walking. However, cars became the mainstream of traffic, and the transportation system was almost eliminated after the city tram disappeared several decades ago. Somerville City is within the service range of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Bureau.
In the city there is the only high speed train station in the northern part of Davis Square. In the 1980s, the Red Line was extended up to Aylwif, and in 1984, the station was opened at Davis Square in Westsomerville.
In addition, railway transportation is operated in the periphery of the summer building. In the southwest, Porter Square is a junction between the Red Line and the Fitzburg Line, which crosses the city's border with Cambridge City. To the east is Sullivan Square, an orange line, on the border with Charlestown.
The Orange Line passed through Assembly Square in the eastern part of the city, but there were no stops. However, the construction of a new station between Sullivan Square and Wellington started in 2012. This is part of the $1.5 billion redevelopment of Assembly Square. Assembly Station is scheduled to open later in 2014.
In September 2013, Massachusetts secured funds to build two new stations of the Greenline Rapid Transit Railway in Summerville. The plan for the Green Line extension section has been delayed, and the new station will be constructed at Union Square and Brick Bottom by 2017. Two branch lines are planned for the green line extension section. The 'Main Line' is operated within the right of passage for the existing commuter train on the Lowell Line, starting at Lekmia Station in East Cambridge, passing through the Winter Hill area in Summerville City in the north, and ending near Tufts University at College Avenue in Medford City. The other branch runs within the current Fitzburg's right of passage to Union Square, Seven stations are scheduled to be built in total, including the relocated Rekmia station.
A plan to extend public transportation from Rekmia to the north has been in place for decades. However, it was not until 1990 that Massachusetts made a legally binding resolution to extend the railway that runs through Somerville in return for problems caused by traffic and air pollution in the city due to the completion of its large-scale Big Dig infrastructure. The current plan was launched in 2005 when the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Bureau completed the Investor Review/Alternative Analysis of the Northwest Corridor Research Institute after Rekmia.
However, despite the legal support, the plan by the Greenline Extension Division has been significantly behind, and Samaville City and the Conservation Law Fund have appealed to court to promote the project. In 2006, with community support and the support of other promoters such as the Somerville Transportation Fair Partnership and the Union Square Task Force, the plan was set to invest millions of dollars from the state and set a deadline of completion in December 2014.
There were arguments over the delay of the state's delay in funding the project, and Governor Deval Patrick decided to delay the project by two more years to demand $300 million for the project. This decision is likely not to keep the previous delivery date of December 2014.
main high-standard road
As of 2013, only 43.6% of Somerville's commuters commute by car, but several highways run through the city.
McGrace Highway is a north-south highway, and it is part of National Route 28 in the city. The road follows Monsainer O'Brien Highway in the southwestern Cambridge City, and in Medford in the north it connects with Mystic Avenue and Interstate Expressway Route 93, called Ferzway. The highway has a long and complex history, showing the changes in traffic conditions in Summerville and the Metropolitan Area of Boston. Originally, it was constructed as a faster route on Route 28, connecting the Charles River and the Mystic River, in 1928, and was elevated in order to connect faster in the 1950s. As a result, the East Somerville and Inner Belt areas were cut off from the rest of Winter Hill and the city. When Route 28 was built, the main purpose was to provide local commuters to Boston. But soon it became clear that it was necessary to replace it with a bigger and safer highway. Northern Express Way was built in the early 1970s as a part of Inter-State Expressway Route 93, and McGrace Highway was virtually out of date. Today, the two elevated parts are aging. In 2013, the Massachusetts Ministry of Transportation recommended to demolish the McCarthy Elevated Section, which intersects several roads, and proposed rebuilding the city with a street style with bikers and pedestrian lanes. The construction start date has not yet been set.
Northern Express Way runs from the northwest to the southeast of the city, cutting Ten Hills and Assembly Square off the rest of the city. This elevated road was completed in the early 1970s and passes directly above or by Mystic Avenue. The section of Summerville and Charlestown is usually called "the top and bottom decks of Route 93," and there are three lanes up, three lanes north, and three lanes down, three lanes south. East Somerville is also separated from Charlestown.
SIDEWALK AND BICYCLE ROAD
A summer building is considered a city that is friendly to pedestrians and bicycles. In 2013, 16.6% of commuters used to walk or use bicycles.
The Somerville Community Pass is a multi-purpose road using the passage rights of the former Boston and Lowell Railway, which runs from Davis Square to Lekmia Square on the border with Cambridge City. Currently, a portion of the length of about 0.8 miles (1.3 km) is completed and used. The two completed parts were paved with scattered bricks, surrounded by grass and trees, and were connected by sidewalks to the nearby streets and the area garden. Street lamps are also used at night, and in winter snow is raked.
In 2013, for the first time in nearly 20 years, the construction work to extend Cedar Street from its end to Lowell Street was started at 0.25 miles (400 meters) east.
The city of Summerville uses more buses than any other area in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Nearly 40,000 people use bus services to pass through the city every day. There are 15 routes covering the city.
There are many news sources in the city.
- "Boston Globe" (especially the Summer Ville Region)
- Summerville Journal
- Summerville News
- Somerville Beat
- Summerville Patch
- Summerville Scout
- Somerville Boysees
The public radio program "Live on the Earth" is recorded at Davis Square. Furthermore, a publishing company called Candlewick Press, a children's book, is run in the city.
The Baystate Newspaper, the High Water Book, and the Radical America were originally publishing businesses in the city.
well known native
- Hal Clement, writer
- Henry Hadley, Composer and Conductor
- Alan Hovanes, composer
- Alex Rocco, Actor
The city of Somerville connects Tiznit and Morocco's sister cities.
- ^ "The Model City". Boston.com (May 14, 2006). Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Somerville Named All America City". Somervillema.gov. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ R. H. Howard and Henry E. Crocker, ed (1880). A History of New England. Volume 1. Boston: Crocker & Co.. p. 202
- ^ History of the Town of Medford, p. 2
- ^ The History of Prospect Hill
- ^ Francis J. Bremer, John Winthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 248.
- ^ Robert C. Winthrop, Life And Letters Of John Winthrop: Governor Of The Massachusetts Bay Company At Their Emigration To New England 1630, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC), p. 64.
- ^ "New England's Scarlet 'S' for Slavery". boston.com. The Boston Globe (January 18, 2010). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "Hidden in Plain Sight: Eyes on Historic East Somerville". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning and Community Development (May 1, 2011). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "The Powder Alarm sets the stage for revolution". millbury.dailyvoice.com. The Millbury Daily Voice (September 9, 2011). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "A Visitor's Guide to Nathan Tufts Park". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning & Community Development. Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ Fischer, pp. 44-45
- ^ Richmond, Robert P (1971). Powder Alarm 1774. Princeton, NJ: Auerbach. ISBN 978-0-87769-073-3. OCLC 162197
- ^ "Time to remember Paul Revere's Somerville ties". thesomervillenews.com. The Somerville News (April 19, 2009). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ Christopher Klein (April 15, 2012). "Paul Revere's midnight ride — by day, in a car. Behind the wheel for Paul Revere's ride - Travel". The Boston Globe. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Haskell's Historical Guide Book of Somerville, Massachusetts". somervillema.gov. Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ Historical postcards of the raising of the Grand Union Flag in 1776.
- ^ "Sullivan Square: Part 1 of 3". Somerville Development Forum. Somerville Development Forum. Viewed on December 6, 2013.
- ^ a "The making of Somerville: A working history". tuftsdaily.com. The Tufts Daily (April 22, 2004). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ Adams Drake, Samuel (1880). History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts: Containing Carefully Prepared Histories of Every City and Town in the County, Volume 2 (Google eBook). Nabu PressDecember 7, 2013.
- ^ cf. Haskell, Albert L., "Haskell's Historical Guide Book of Somerville, Massachusetts", section on "Somerville: Why So Named".
- ^ James C. O'Connell (2013). The Hub's Metropolis: Greater Boston's Development from Railroad Suburbs to Smart Growth. MIT Press. pp. 116-. ISBN 978-0-262-01875-3
- ^ "The Somerville Files: The Ghosts of Assembly Square". digboston.com. Dig Boston, June 26, 2013. Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "Five Year Consolidated Plan 2008-2013". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning & Community Development (February 2008). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ a b "McGrath overpass may come down". bostonglobe.com. The Boston Globe, May 19, 2013. Viewed on December 6, 2013.
- ^ "Ford Fiasco: Tracking the Rise and Fall of the Edsel in American Newspaper Archives". Readex. NewsBank, Inc. (April 30, 2013). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "For answers to housing woes, look to vibrant Davis Square". bostonglobe.com. The Boston Globe, February 28, 2013. Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "Across the U.S., Universities Are Fueling High-Tech Economic Booms". The New York Times (October 1, 1999). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "Rent Control: The morning after". The Economist (April 30, 1998). Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "SLUMERVILLE' NO MORE THE OFT-MALIGNED CITY HAS LAUNCHED A YEARLONG INITIATIVE TO REMAKE ITSELF AS A GREAT PLACE TO LIVE, WORK, AND SHOP". The Boston Globe. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ http://media.www.tuftsdaily.com/media/storage/paper856/news/2005/02/15/News/City-Briefs-1490115.shtml
- ^ Keane Jr., Thomas M. (May 14, 2006). "The Model City". The Boston GlobeAugust 13, 2011.
- ^ "Somerville (city), Massachusetts". census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ City Of Somerville - Somerville Historical Information
- ^ "Transforming the Lost Half-Mile". architects.org/. Architecture Boston (Spring 2012). Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ "NOAA JetStream Max". The National Weather Service (October 21, 2011). January 26, 2013: Read
- ^ Average weather for Somerville Weather Channel'.' Retrieved December 12, 2013.
- ^ "Trends in Somerville: Land Use Technical Report". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning and Community Development, May 2011. Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ Somerville City website
- ^ Somerville Neighborhood Map
- ^ 48 Reasons Why Somerville is GREAT (Finished for Now) "Greg's Words of Wisdom
- ^ Compare Google Maps streetview to historic postcard.
- ^ Community Path-overview.pdf Somerville Community Path briefing, p. 5
- ^ City Of Somerville - Board of Aldermen
- ^ "Capuano takes out papers for Ted K's Senate seat". Boston Herald (September 8, 2009). Read on September 8, 2009.
- ^ Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 57, Section 3 - Division of the state into senatorial districts
- ^ Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 57, Section 3 - Division of the state into representative districts
- ^ "(PDF)". Massachusetts Elections Division. Read on March 28, 2013.
- ^ "Somerville Police Department". Somervillepolice.org. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Fire Department | City of Somerville Website". Somervillema.gov. On June 26, 2012, it was read.
- ^ http://www.somerville.k12.ma.us/education/school/school.php?sectiondetailid=18761&linkid=nav-menu-container-1-68977
- ^ http://www.markniedergang.com/2013_2014_school_budget_process
- ^ "Somerville Public Schools - Our Schools". Somerville.k12.ma.us (April 4, 2012). On April 23, 2012:
- ^ Powers, Kathleen. "Three-alarm fire burns East Somerville Community School - Somerville, Massachusetts 02144 - Somerville Journal". Wickedlocal.com. On April 23, 2012:
- ^ (PDF). On April 23, 2012:
- ^ "Leonard Carmichael Society at Tufts University". Ase.tufts.edu. On April 23, 2012:
- ^ The Somerville Public Library
- ^ "The Somerville News Blog". Somervillenews.typepad.com (October 15, 2005). On April 23, 2012:
- ^ "de beste bron van informatie over provost citywide. Deze website is te koop!". provost-citywide.org. On April 23, 2012:
- ^ "About Somerville". City of Somerville. Read on March 22, 2013.
- ^ Brickbottom Artists Association Website
- ^ Social Web article on Brickbottom District
- ^ Artisan's Asylum "Welcome" flyer
- ^ "Somerville Arts Council". Somervilleartscouncil.org. On April 23, 2012:
- ^ "Somerville Open Studios". Somerville Open Studios (April 17, 2012). On April 23, 2012:
- ^ arret Bencks (May 10, 2013). "Somerville community path extension breaks ground Monday"August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Somerville Parks". Read on September 17, 2011.
- ^ "Somerville Museum. About the Museum". Somervillemuseum.org. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ 1 Westwood Rd (January 1, 1970). "1 Westwood Rd, Somerville, MA". Maps.google.com. On April 23, 2012:
- ^ "For answers to housing woes, look to vibrant Davis Square". bostonglobe.com. The Boston Globe. Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ "Transportation and Infrastructure". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning and Community Development. Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ "Groundbreaking ceremony for Orange Line at Somerville's Assembly Square today". Wickedlocal.com. Somerville Journal (April 30, 2012). Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Somerville poised to grow along Green Line". bostonglobe.com. The Boston Globe, December 5, 2013. Viewed on December 7, 2013.
- ^ "Green Line Extension (GLX) Project". mbta.com. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (August 19, 2013). Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ "City Of Somerville - Green Line Extension Info". Read on August 26, 2007.
- ^ a b Cummings, Claire (August 9, 2007). "Proponents rap delay to extend Green Line - The Boston Globe"August 26, 2007.
- ^ a "ResiStat: How do you get around Somerville?". Somervilleresistat.blogspot.com (June 6, 2013). Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ Street map from City of Somerville website
- ^ "I-93: Historic Overview of the Northern Expressway". bostonroads.com. Boston Roads. Viewed on December 6, 2013.
- ^ "Somerville - Neighborhoods, Photos, and Maps". Walkscore.com. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ "Bike Score of Somerville, MA". Walkscore.com. Read on August 8, 2013.
- ^ http://www.pathfriends.org/scp/community_path_detail.gif
- ^ "Community Path extension underway". thesomervilletimes.com. The Somerville Times (May 15, 2013). Viewed on December 6, 2013.
- ^ "Transportation and Infrastructure - Transit". somervillema.gov. City of Somerville Office of Strategic Planning and Community Development. Viewed on December 11, 2013.
- ^ Your Town Somerville
- ^ The Somerville News
- ^ Somerville Beat
- ^ Somerville Patch
- ^ Somerville Scout
- ^ Somerville Voices
- ^ Somerville welcomes delegation from sister city, Tiznit, Morocco
- Drake, Samuel Adams. History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Volume 1 (A-H), Volume 2 (L-W) published 1879 and 1880. 572 and 505 pages. Somerville article by E.C.Booth in volume 2 pages 309-338. http://www.somervillelocal76.org/.* http://www.somervillema.gov/police-department/index.html.
- Dutton, E.P. Chart of Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay with Map of Adjacent Country. Published 1867.
- Lehr, Dick; Gerard O'Neil (2000). Black Mass:The True Story of an Unholy Alliance Between the FBI and the Irish Mob. Public Affairs Press. pp. 8-84. ISBN 1-891620-40-1
- Haskell, Albert L., Haskell's Historical Guide Book of Somerville, Massachusetts
- Ostrander, Susan A. Citizenship and Governance in a Changing City: Somerville, MA (Temp University Press; 2013) 190 pages; study of tensions between immigrants and a new middle class in politics and community activism
- Sammarco, Anthony Michael (1997). Images of America: Somerville. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-1290-7
- Samuels, Edward Augustus; Kimball, Henry Hastings, "Somerville, past and present: an illustrated historical souvenir", Boston : Samuels & Kimball, 1897
- Somerville, Arlington and Belmont Directory. 1869; 1873; 1876.
- Zellie, Carole (1982, 1990). Beyond the Neck: The Architecture and Development of Somerville, Massachusetts. St. Paul, Minn.: Landscape Research. ISBN 0-7385-1290-7
- Wall & Gray. 1871 Atlas of Massachusetts. Map of Massachusetts. Map of Middlesex County.
- official website
- Somerville Chamber of Commerce
- Somerville Community Corporation
- Profile at City Data